The History of CLIPS
The origins of the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) date back to 1984 at NASAís Johnson Space Center. At this time, the Artificial Intelligence Section (now the Software Technology Branch) had developed over a dozen prototype expert systems applications using stateoftheart hardware and software. However, despite extensive demonstrations of the potential of expert systems, few of these applications were put into regular use. This failure to provide expert systems technology within NASAís operational computing constraints could largely be traced to the use of LISP as the base language for nearly all expert system software tools at that time. In particular, three problems hindered the use of LISP based expert system tools within NASA: the low availability of LISP on a wide variety of conventional computers, the high cost of stateoftheart LISP tools and hardware, and the poor integration of LISP with other languages (making embedded applications difficult).
The Artificial Intelligence Section felt that the use of a conventional language, such as C, would eliminate most of these problems, and initially looked to the expert system tool vendors to provide an expert system tool written using a conventional language. Although a number of tool vendors started converting their tools to run in C, the cost of each tool was still very high, most were restricted to a small variety of computers, and the projected availability times were discouraging. To meet all of its needs in a timely and cost effective manner, it became evident that the Artificial Intelligence Section would have to develop its own C based expert system tool.
The prototype version of CLIPS was developed in the spring of 1985 in a little over two months. Particular attention was given to making the tool compatible with expert systems under development at that time by the Artificial Intelligence Section. Thus, the syntax of CLIPS was made to very closely resemble the syntax of a subset of the ART expert system tool developed by Inference Corporation. Although originally modelled from ART, CLIPS was developed entirely without assistance from Inference or access to the ART source code.
The original intent of the prototype was to gain useful insight and knowledge about the construction of expert system tools and to lay the groundwork for the construction of a fully usable tool. The CLIPS prototype had numerous shortcomings, however, it demonstrated the feasibility of the project concept. After additional development, it became apparent that sufficient enhancements to the prototype would produce a low cost expert system tool that would be ideal for the purposes of training. Another year of development and internal use went into CLIPS improving its portability, performance, and functionality. A reference manual and userís guide were written during this time. The first release of CLIPS to groups outside of NASA, version 3.0, occurred in the summer of 1986.
Further enhancements transformed CLIPS from a training tool into a tool useful for the development and delivery of expert systems as well. Versions 4.0 and 4.1 of CLIPS, released respectively in the summer and fall of 1987, featured greatly improved performance, external language integration, and delivery capabilities. Version 4.2 of CLIPS, released in the summer of 1988, was a complete rewrite of CLIPS for code modularity. Also included with this release were an architecture manual providing a detailed description of the CLIPS software architecture and a utility program for aiding in the verification and validation of rulebased programs. Version 4.3 of CLIPS, released in the summer of 1989, added still more functionality.
Originally, the primary representation methodology in CLIPS was a forward chaining rule language based on the Rete algorithm (hence the Production System part of the CLIPS acronym). Version 5.0 of CLIPS, released in the spring of 1991, introduced two new programming paradigms: procedural programming (as found in languages such as C and Ada) and objectoriented programming (as found in languages such as the Common Lisp Object System and Smalltalk). The objectoriented programming language provided within CLIPS is called the CLIPS ObjectOriented Language (COOL). Version 5.1 of CLIPS, released in the fall of 1991, was primarily a software maintenance upgrade required to support the newly developed and/or enhanced X Window, MSDOS, and Macintosh interfaces.
Because of its portability, extensibility, capabilities, and lowcost, CLIPS has received widespread acceptance throughout the government, industry, and academia. The development of CLIPS has helped to improve the ability to deliver expert system technology throughout the public and private sectors for a wide range of applications and diverse computing environments. CLIPS is being used by over 4,000 users throughout the public and private community including: all NASA sites and branches of the military, numerous federal bureaus, government contractors, universities, and many private companies. CLIPS is available at a nominal cost through COSMIC, the NASA software distribution center (for more on COSMIC, see appendix E of the Basic Programming Guide).
CLIPS Version 6.0
Version 6.0 of CLIPS contains five major enhancements. First, instances of userdefined classes in COOL can be patternmatched on the lefthand side of rules. Second, CLIPS now contains considerable support for knowledge based systems software engineering. Support is now provided for building modular systems and many of the features previously available in CRSV are now directly supported in CLIPS (such as constraint consistency among uses of the same variable). Third, deftemplates can now have more than one multifield slot. Fourth, it is now possible to nest other conditional elements within a not conditional element and two new conditional elements, exists and forall , are supported. Fifth, a Windows 3.1 CLIPS interface is now available for PC compatible computers. In addition, MSDOS 286 and 386 versions of CLIPS are available which can use extended memory. For a detailed listing of differences between versions 5.1 and 6.0 of CLIPS, refer to appendix D of the Basic Programming Guide.
Three documents are provided with CLIPS.
ï The CLIPS Reference Manual which is split into the following parts:
ï Volume I - The Basic Programming Guide, which provides the definitive description of CLIPS syntax and examples of usage.
ï Volume II - The Advanced Programming Guide, which provides detailed discussions of the more sophisticated features in CLIPS and is intended for people with extensive programming experience who are using CLIPS for advanced applications.
ï Volume III - The Interfaces Guide, which provides information on machinespecific interfaces.
ï The CLIPS Userís Guide which provides an introduction to CLIPS and is intended for people with little or no expert system experience.
ï Volume I - Rules, which provides an introduction to rulebased programming using CLIPS.
ï Volume II - Objects, which provides an introduction to objectoriented programming using COOL.
ï The CLIPS Architecture Manual which provides a detailed description of the CLIPS software architecture. This manual describes each module of CLIPS in terms of functionality and purpose. It is intended for people with extensive programming experience who are interested in modifying CLIPS or who want to gain a deeper understanding of how CLIPS works.
As with any large project, CLIPS is the result of the efforts of numerous people. The primary contributors have been: Robert Savely, previous branch chief of the STB and now chief scientist of advanced software technology at JSC, who conceived the project and provided overall direction and support; Chris Culbert, current branch chief of the STB, who managed the project, wrote the original CLIPS Reference Manual, and designed the original version of CRSV; Gary Riley, who designed and developed the rulebased portion of CLIPS, coauthored the CLIPS Reference Manual and CLIPS Architecture Manual, and developed the Macintosh interface for CLIPS; Brian Donnell, who designed and developed the CLIPS Object Oriented Language (COOL), coauthored the CLIPS Reference Manual and CLIPS Architecture Manual, and developed the previous MSDOS interfaces for CLIPS; Bebe Ly, who was responsible for maintenance and enhancements to CRSV and is now responsible for developing the X Window interface for CLIPS; Chris Ortiz, who developed the Windows 3.1 interface for CLIPS; Dr. Joseph Giarratano of the University of Houston-Clear Lake, who wrote the CLIPS Userís Guide; and Frank Lopez, who wrote the original prototype version of CLIPS.
Many other individuals contributed to the design, development, review, and general support of CLIPS, including: Jack Aldridge, Carla Armstrong, Paul Baffes, Ann Baker, Stephen Baudendistel, Les Berke, Tom Blinn, Marlon Boarnet, Dan Bochsler, Bob Brown, Barry Cameron, Tim Cleghorn, Major Paul Condit, Major Steve Cross, Andy Cunningham, Dan Danley, Mark Engelberg, Kirt Fields, Ken Freeman, Kevin Greiner, Ervin Grice, Sharon Hecht, Patti Herrick, Mark Hoffman, Grace Hua, Gordon Johnson, Phillip Johnston, Sam Juliano, Ed Lineberry, Bowen Loftin, Linda Martin, Daniel McCoy, Terry McGregor, Becky McGuire, Scott Meadows, C. J. Melebeck, Paul Mitchell, Steve Mueller, Cynthia Rathjen, Eric Raymond, Reza Razavipour, Marsha Renals, Monica Rua, Tim Saito, Gregg Swietek, Eric Taylor, James Villarreal, Lui Wang, Bob Way, Jim Wescott, Charlie Wheeler, and Wes White.