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Appendix I Reserved Function Names

This appendix lists all of the functions provided by either standard CLIPS or various CLIPS extensions. They should be considered reserved function names, and users should not create userdefined functions with any of these names.

!=

*

**

+

-

/

<

<=

<>

=

>

>=

abs

acos

acosh

acot

acoth

acsc

acsch

activeduplicateinstance

active-initialize-instance

active-make-instance

activemessageduplicateinstance

active-message-modify-instance

active-modify-instance

agenda

and

any-instancep

apropos

asec

asech

asin

asinh

assert

assert-string

atan

atanh

batch

bind

bload

bload-instances

break

browse-classes

bsave

bsave-instances

build

call-next-handler

call-next-method

call-specific-method

class

class-abstractp

class-existp

class-reactivep

class-slots

class-subclasses

class-superclasses

clear

clear-focus-stack

close

conserve-mem

constructs-to-c

cos

cosh

cot

coth

create$

csc

csch

defclass-module

deffacts-module

deffunction-module

defgeneric-module

defglobal-module

definstances-module

defrule-module

deftemplate-module

deg-grad

deg-rad

delayed-do-for-all-instances

delete$

delete-instance

dependencies

dependents

describe-class

direct-mv-delete

direct-mv-insert

direct-mv-replace

div

do-for-all-instances

do-for-instance

dribble-off

dribble-on

duplicate

duplicate-instance

duplicate-instance

dynamic-get

dynamic-put

edit

eq

eval

evenp

exit

exp

expand$

explode$

fact-index

facts

fetch

find-all-instances

find-instance

first$

float

floatp

focus

format

gensym

gensym*

get

get-auto-float-dividend

get-current-module

get-defclass-list

get-deffacts-list

get-deffunction-list

get-defgeneric-list

get-defglobal-list

get-definstances-list

get-defmessage-handler-list

get-defmethod-list

get-defmodule-list

get-defrule-list

get-deftemplate-list

get-dynamic-constraint-checking

get-fact-duplication

get-focus

get-focus-stack

get-function-restrictions

get-incremental-reset

get-method-restrictions

get-reset-globals

get-salience-evaluation

get-sequence-operator-recognition

get-static-constraint-checking

get-strategy

grad-deg

halt

help

help-path

if

implode$

init-slots

initialize-instance

initialize-instance

insert$

instance-address

instance-addressp

instance-existp

instance-name

instance-name-to-symbol

instance-namep

instancep

instances

integer

integerp

length

length$

lexemep

list-defclasses

list-deffacts

list-deffunctions

list-defgenerics

list-defglobals

list-definstances

list-defmessage-handlers

list-defmethods

list-defmodules

list-defrules

list-deftemplates

list-focus-stack

list-watch-items

load

load-facts

load-instances

log

log10

loop-for-count

lowcase

make-instance

make-instance

matches

max

mem-requests

mem-used

member

member$

message-duplicate-instance

message-duplicate-instance

message-handler-existp

message-modify-instance

message-modify-instance

min

mod

modify

modify-instance

modify-instance

multifieldp

mv-append

mv-delete

mv-replace

mv-slot-delete

mv-slot-insert

mv-slot-replace

mv-subseq

neq

next-handlerp

next-methodp

not

nth

nth$

numberp

object-pattern-match-delay

oddp

open

options

or

override-next-handler

override-next-method

pi

pointerp

pop-focus

ppdefclass

ppdeffacts

ppdeffunction

ppdefgeneric

ppdefglobal

ppdefinstances

ppdefmessage-handler

ppdefmethod

ppdefmodule

ppdefrule

ppdeftemplate

ppinstance

preview-generic

preview-send

primitives-info

print-region

printout

progn

progn$

put

rad-deg

random

read

readline

refresh

refresh-agenda

release-mem

remove

remove-break

rename

replace$

reset

rest$

restore-instances

retract

return

round

rule-complexity

rules

run

save

save-facts

save-instances

sec

sech

seed

send

sequencep

set-auto-float-dividend

set-break

set-current-module

set-dynamic-constraint-checking

set-fact-duplication

set-incremental-reset

set-reset-globals

set-salience-evaluation

set-sequence-operator-recognition

set-static-constraint-checking

set-strategy

setgen

show-breaks

show-defglobals

show-fht

show-fpn

show-joins

show-opn

sin

sinh

slotallowedvalues

slot-cardinality

slot-delete$

slot-direct-accessp

slot-direct-delete$

slot-direct-insert$

slot-direct-replace$

slot-existp

slot-facets

slot-initablep

slot-insert$

slot-publicp

slot-range

slot-replace$

slot-sources

slot-types

slot-writablep

sqrt

str-assert

str-cat

str-compare

str-explode

str-implode

str-index

str-length

stringp

sub-string

subclassp

subseq$

subset

subsetp

superclassp

switch

sym-cat

symbol-to-instance-name

symbolp

system

tan

tanh

time

toss

type

type

undefclass

undeffacts

undeffunction

undefgeneric

undefglobal

undefinstances

undefmessage-handler

undefmethod

undefrule

undeftemplate

unmake-instance

unwatch

upcase

watch

while

wordp


Index
~ 6, 37 166
$? 7
& 6, 37
( 6
) 6
* 167
** 173
+ 166
/ 167
< 6, 148
<= 148
<> 146
= 42, 146
=> 25
> 147
>= 147
| 6, 37
? 7
?DERIVE 20
?NONE 20
?self 98, 99
abs 169
abstraction 17
acos 17
1acosh 171acot 171acoth 171acsc 171acsch 171action 15, 25, 143activated 26
activeduplicateinstance 74, 103, 117, 284activeinitializeinstance 74, 110, 284
activemakeinstance 74, 108, 109, 284activemessageduplicateinstance 74, 104, 119, 285
activemessagemodifyinstance 74, 103, 116, 285activemodifyinstance 74, 103, 115
Ada xvi, 7, 9, 14, 15Advanced Programming Guide xvii, 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 47, 145, 158, 170, 256
agenda 26, 30, 61, 238, 239, 288allowedinstancenames 139allowedinstances 139, 284
allowednumbers 284ampersand 6and 149ANSI_COMPILER 165, 226antecedent 14anyinstancep 74, 125
apropos 226, 285arrow 25ART xvArtificial Intelligence Section xvasec 171asech 171asin 171asinh 171
assert 10, 20, 74, 186, 189, 219, 287assertstring 189, 286, 287atan 171atanh 171attributedefault 20
autofocus 61backslash 7, 160, 165, 189Basic Programming Guide xvi, xvii, 1batch 3, 4, 223, 287
bind 35, 63, 74, 99, 112, 175, 283, 284, 288bload 222, 225, 287bloadinstances 254, 255, 285break 74, 125, 178, 181, 288
browseclasses 249bsave 137, 221, 222, 287bsaveinstances 255, 285build 156C xv, 7, 9, 11, 14, 15, 19
callnexthandler 74, 105, 106, 208, 209callnextmethod 73, 74, 77, 196, 197, 198callspecificmethod 67, 74, 77, 198, 285
carriage return 6case sensitive 7class 7, 13, 70, 211, 247, 249abstract 79, 84, 247concrete 80, 84
existence 200immediate 84, 95nonreactive 84precedence 82reactive 80, 84specific 82, 84, 89, 105
system 79ADDRESS 79EXTERNALADDRESS 79FACTADDRESS 79FLOAT 79INITIALOBJECT 79INSTANCE 79INSTANCEADDRESS 79
INSTANCENAME 79INTEGER 79LEXEME 79MULTIFIELD 79NUMBER 79OBJECT 79, 82, 249PRIMITIVE 79STRING 79SYMBOL 79
USER 79, 82, 101, 111, 210, 211, 254userdefined 8, 13, 253classabstractp 202classexistp 200
classmessagehandlerexistp 287classmessagehandlers 287classreactivep 202, 285classslotexistp 287
classslots 203, 287classsubclasses 203, 287classsuperclasses 202, 287class function 195, 211
clear 10, 23, 63, 110, 129, 131, 135, 222, 223clearfocusstack 240, 285CLIPS xvCLOS 67, 79close 160
command 3, 143, 221command prompt 3comment 7, 10Common Lisp Object System xvicondition 15
conditional element 15, 23, 25, 30, 60and 25, 30, 49exists xvi, 30, 51, 281forall xvi, 30, 53, 281
logical 30, 55not xvi, 30, 50or 30, 48pattern 25, 30, 281initialfact 25, 49, 51initialobject 25, 49, 51l
iteral 31test 27, 30, 47conflict resolution strategy 15, 26, 27, 222, 223, 240breadth 27complexity 28
depth 27lex 28mea 29random 29simplicity 27consequent 14conservemem 221, 257constant 3, 8constraint 30, 37, 40
connective 30, 37field 30literal 31predicate 30, 40, 47return value 30, 42construct 3, 10, 156
constructstoc 225COOL xvi, 8, 14, 17, 18, 67, 70, 79, 195, 199, 246cos 171cosh 171COSMIC xvicot 171
coth 171create$ 149, 286crlf 161CRSV xvicrsvtraceoff 287crsvtraceon 287csc 171csch 171daemon 100, 108, 123
deactivated 26declarative technique 77, 96, 106declare 60defaultdynamic 20defclass 8, 10, 80, 94, 246
defclassmodule 200, 285defexternal 284deffacts 10, 12, 23, 232deffactsmodule 191, 285
deffunction 9, 10, 15, 16, 65, 67, 243action 66advantages over generic functions 279execution error 66
recursion 66regular parameter 65return value 66wildcard parameter 65deffunctionmodule 194, 285
defgeneric 9, 10, 67, 68defgenericmodule 195, 285defglobal 10, 14, 63, 241defglobalmodule 193, 285
definstances 10, 14, 80, 109, 252initialobject 80definstancesmodule 210, 285defmessagehandler 10, 94, 95, 250
defmethod 9, 10, 67, 68defmodule 10, 129, 256defmodules 17defrelation 284defrule 10, 25, 233
defrulemodule 191, 285deftemplate 10, 11, 19, 229deftemplatemodule 186, 285deftemplate fact 11, 19, 188
deftemplates xvideggrad 171degrad 172delayeddoforallinstances 74, 125, 128, 180, 181
deleteinstance 113, 211delete$ 151, 286, 288delimiter 6dependencies 237, 288dependents 238, 288
describeclass 82, 247, 288directmvdelete 286directmvinsert 286directmvreplace 286
directslotdelete$ 216, 286directslotinsert$ 215, 286, 288directslotreplace$ 215, 286div 168
doforallinstances 74, 125, 127, 180, 181doforinstance 74, 125, 126, 180, 181double quote 6
dribbleoff 227, 287dribbleon 226, 287duplicate 10, 12, 21, 74, 188, 219, 287
duplicateinstance 74, 103, 116, 285dynamicget 112, 214, 286, 320dynamicput 112, 214, 286, 320
dynamic binding 17edit 273embedded application 4encapsulation 17, 79, 98, 107EOF 162eq 145eval 156
evenp 144exists conditional element xviexit 4, 160, 223exp 174expand$ 74, 97, 219explode$ 151, 286
exponential notation 6exporting constructs 131expression 9externaladdress 5, 7, 8, 161facet 80, 85, 247
accessinitializeonly 87readonly 87readwrite 87createaccessor 92read 92readwrite 92write 92default 85
defaultdynamic 85multislot 85overridemessage 93patternmatchnonreactive 90reactive 90propagationinherit 88
noinherit 84, 88shared 85singleslot 85slot 85sourcecomposite 84, 89exclusive 89storagelocal 86shared 86
visibility 91private 91public 91fact 10, 12, 23, 230factaddress 5, 7, 8, 10, 46, 161
factindex 10, 21, 187, 188, 189, 190, 238factlist 10, 12, 23, 25fact identifier 11
facts 230, 288FALSE 40fetch 261field 8, 11, 12findallinstances 74, 126, 128findinstance 74, 126
fire 25first$ 154, 285float 5, 6, 7, 169floatp 143focus 26, 61, 135, 239, 285forall conditional element xvi
format 159, 163, 284, 288FORTRAN 9function 3, 9, 15, 67, 124, 143call 3, 9external 4, 35, 42, 47
predicate 40, 47, 143, 213reserved names 341system defined 9, 341user defined 7, 9, 47, 327
generic dispatch 67, 68, 71, 73, 279generic function 13, 15, 16, 67, 243disadvantages 278header 68, 69
order dependence 68ordering of method parameter restrictions 279performance penalty 68return value 77
gensym 182, 183gensym* 108, 116, 183get 286getautofloatdividend 225getcurrentmodule 217, 285
getdefclasslist 199, 285getdeffactslist 190, 285getdeffunctionlist 194, 285getdefgenericlist 194, 285
getdefgloballist 193, 285getdefinstanceslist 210, 285getdefmessagehandlerlist 204, 285, 287
getdefmethodlist 195, 285getdefmodulelist 216, 285getdefrulelist 191, 285getdeftemplatelist 186, 285
getdynamicconstraintchecking 225, 287getdynamicdeftemplatechecking 287getfactduplication 232
getfocus 192, 285getfocusstack 192, 285getfunctionrestrictions 74, 185, 285getincrementalreset 237
getmethodrestrictions 74, 199, 285getresetglobals 243getsalienceevaluation 241
getsequenceoperatorrecognition 220, 285getstaticconstraintchecking 226getstrategy 240
graddeg 172halt 239help 257, 259, 260helppath 258I/O router 158if 74, 177, 219if portion 15
imperative technique 77, 96, 106implode$ 152, 287importing constructs 131incremental reset 25, 223, 237
Inference Corporation xvinference engine 15, 25, 26inheritance 14, 17, 80, 84
class precedence list 18, 80, 82, 84, 89, 95, 105, 247isa 81multiple 14, 18, 79, 81, 82, 249
initslots 101, 108, 111, 211initialfact pattern 25, 49, 51
initialobject pattern 25, 49, 51initializeinstance 74, 86, 93, 101, 110, 210
insert$ 153, 285, 288instance 7, 13, 14, 84, 86, 247, 253active 98, 104, 105, 112, 113, 211, 214, 254
creation 107deletion 102direct 79, 80, 84, 88initialization 101, 107, 110, 210manipulation 107printing 102
instanceaddress 6, 8, 46, 161, 212, 213, 279instanceaddressp 213instanceexistp 213instancelist 14, 25
instancename 5, 8, 121, 212, 213instancenametosymbol 212instancenamep 213instanceset 121action 124
class restriction 121distributed action 123member 121member variable 121, 124query 18, 123, 124, 279
query execution error 125query functions 125template 121instancep 213instances xvi, 253, 288
integer 5, 6, 7, 169, 287integerp 143integration 4Interfaces Guide xvii, 3lefthand side 15
length 185length$ 85, 97, 185less than 6lexemep 144LHS 25line feed 6LISP xv, 14
listdefclasses 246listdeffacts 233, 288listdeffunctions 243listdefgenerics 244
listdefglobals 242, 288listdefinstances 253listdefmessagehandlers 251, 288
listdefmethods 69, 74, 244, 245listdefmodules 256, 285listdefrules 233, 288
listdeftemplates 230, 288listfocusstack 240, 285listwatchitems 229, 283
load 221, 222, 223, 287loadfacts 231, 287loadinstances 255, 288local 231
log 174log10 174logical name 159, 226nil 163stdin 159, 161, 162, 226
stdout 159, 161, 163, 226t 159, 161, 162, 163wclips 159, 226wdialog 159, 226
wdisplay 159, 226werror 159, 226wtrace 159, 226wwarning 159, 226
logical support 55, 187, 188, 237, 238loopforcount 74, 178, 219, 285lowcase 157
makeinstance 8, 44, 74, 84, 85, 88, 93, 101, 107, 109, 210, 255, 288matches 60, 234
math functions 166, 170max 168maxnumberofelements 140maxnumberoffields 284memrequests 256
memused 256member 286member$ 150, 286message 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 67, 79, 85, 95, 97, 98, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 111
dispatch 96execution error 97, 106, 208implementation 95return value 107messageduplicateinstance 74, 93, 104, 117, 285
messagehandler 13, 15, 16, 18, 67, 79, 80, 82, 88, 95, 98, 106, 107, 112, 176, 211, 247, 254, 279action 98
applicability 96, 97, 104, 105, 252documentation 94existence 202forward declaration 94regular parameter 97
return value 107shadow 106, 208specific 104, 105, 107systemdelete 102, 108, 109, 113, 116
directduplicate 103, 104, 116, 117directmodify 103, 114, 115init 88, 101, 107, 108, 111, 210
messageduplicate 117, 119messagemodify 103, 115, 116print 102typeafter 95, 105, 107
around 95, 105, 106, 107, 208before 95, 105, 107primary 95, 105, 106, 107wildcard parameter 97
messagehandlerexistp 202, 287messagemodifyinstance 74, 93, 103, 115, 285message dispatch 104
method 16, 67, 68, 79action 68applicability 71, 77, 245execution error 77, 196explicit 67, 71, 73
implicit 67, 68, 71index 69, 244parameter query restriction 70parameter restriction 68, 69, 70, 73, 75
parameter type restriction 70precedence 70, 71, 74, 244regular parameter 70, 71return value 77shadow 77, 196, 252
wildcard parameter 71wildcard parameter restriction 68MicroEMACS editor 273min 168
minnumberofelements 140minnumberoffields 284mod 175modify 10, 12, 21, 74, 188, 219, 287
modifyinstance 74, 103, 114, 286module specifier 131multifield value 7, 8multifield wildcard 33
multifieldp 145mvappend 286mvdelete 286mvreplace 286mvslotdelete 286
mvslotinsert 286mvslotreplace 286mvsubseq 286named fields 11NASA xvneq 145
nexthandlerp 74, 208nextmethodp 74, 196nonFALSE 40nonordered fact 11, 19not 149
not conditional element xvinth 286nth$ 85, 150, 286numberp 143object 7, 13, 16, 17
behavior 13, 15, 16, 18, 67, 80, 95primitive type 13properties 13, 16, 18, 80
reference 8, 13, 18objectpatternmatchdelay 44, 74, 113, 219, 286oddp 144open 159, 160
OPS5 28options 224or 149ordered fact 11, 19overload 9, 16, 65, 67, 68, 278
overridenexthandler 74, 105, 106, 209overridenextmethod 73, 74, 77, 197, 198, 286
parenthesis 6, 10Pascal 11, 15, 19pattern 15, 25patternaddress 46patternmatching 15, 63
pattern entity 25performance 277pi 173pointerp 145polymorphism 17popfocus 192, 286
Portability Noteformat 146, 147, 148, 165mathematical functions 170random 184remove 165
rename 165seed 184system 224, 226time 185ppdefclass 246ppdeffacts 232ppdeffunction 243
ppdefgeneric 244ppdefglobal 241ppdefinstances 253ppdefmessagehandler 250ppdefmethod 244
ppdefmodule 256, 286ppdefrule 131, 222, 233ppdeftemplate 230ppinstance 254pprule 233
prefix notation 9previewgeneric 245previewsend 252printregion 261printout 159, 161, 163
progn 74, 113, 123, 179, 181, 219progn$ 74, 179, 219, 286put 286quote 7raddeg 172
random 184read 159, 161, 162, 223readline 159, 162, 223Reference Manual xvii, xixrefresh 237
refreshagenda 241, 288releasemem 257remove 165, 286removebreak 236rename 165, 286replace$ 153, 286
reset 10, 12, 14, 23, 63, 80, 107, 109, 135, 143, 222, 223, 233, 242rest$ 154, 286
restoreinstances 255, 286RETE algorithm 277retract 10, 46, 187, 288return 26, 74, 125, 135, 178, 180, 219, 288
RHS 25righthand side 15round 175roundoff 6rule 14, 25run 135, 239, 284salience 26, 27, 61, 240, 241
dynamic 26, 61, 241save 221, 257, 287savefacts 231, 287, 288saveinstances 254, 255, 288
scientific math functions 170sec 171sech 171seed 184semicolon 7, 10
send 16, 18, 95, 104, 106, 107, 252, 279sequence expansion 35sequencep 145
setautofloatdividend 167, 224setbreak 236setcurrentmodule 131, 216, 239, 286
setdynamicconstraintchecking 21, 94, 137, 222, 225, 287
setdynamicdeftemplatechecking 287setfactduplication 232setincrementalreset 237
setresetglobals 63, 242setsalienceevaluation 61, 240setsequenceoperatorrecognition 219, 286
setstaticconstraintchecking 21, 94, 137, 225setstrategy 27, 143, 240setgen 183showbreaks 237, 288
showdefglobals 242, 286significant digits 6sin 171singlefield value 8singlefield wildcard 33
sinh 171slot 11, 13, 18, 80, 82, 84, 89, 107, 201, 247access 87, 201accessor 92, 123
put<slotname> 108default value 85, 86, 108, 111, 210, 254direct access 98, 112, 123, 176
existence 201facet 85, 89inheritance propagation 88multifield 214overlay 89override 88
visibility 201slotallowedvalues 207, 286slotboundp 282slotcardinality 206, 286
slotdelete$ 216, 286slotdirectaccessp 202, 286slotexistp 287, 288slotfacets 205, 287, 288
slotinitablep 201, 288slotinsert$ 85, 215, 286, 288slotoverride 108, 111, 210, 254
slotpublicp 201, 286slotrange 207, 286slotreplace$ 215, 286slotsources 205, 287
slottypes 206, 286slotwritablep 201, 288slot daemons 279slot-existp 201
Smalltalk xvi, 67, 79Software Technology Branch xvspace 6specificity 27
sqrt 173standard math functions 166strassert 286, 288strcat 154
strcompare 158strexplode 286strimplode 287strindex 155strlength 158
string 5, 7stringp 144substring 155subclass 81, 104, 200, 247, 249
subclassp 200subseq$ 152, 286subset 287subsetp 151, 287superclass 80, 81, 84, 95, 200, 247
direct 81superclassp 200switch 74, 181, 219, 286symcat 155symbol 5, 6, 7, 212reserved 11
and 11declare 11exists 11forall 11logical 11not 11object 11or 11test 11symboltoinstancename 212
symbolp 144system 224tab 6tan 171tanh 171template 188then portion 15tilde 6
time 184top level 3toss 262trigonometric math functions 170trunc 287
truth maintenance 55type function 195, 211unconditional support 55undefclass 246
undeffacts 233undeffunction 243undefgeneric 244undefglobal 63, 242, 286
undefinstances 253undefmessagehandler 251undefmethod 245undefrule 131, 234
undeftemplate 230unmakeinstance 46, 211, 288unwatch 228, 283upcase 157
User’s Guide xvii, xixvalue 8variable 5, 7, 8, 11, 14, 30, 31, 35, 50, 156, 175
global 3, 14, 61, 63, 176, 223vertical bar 6visible 231watch 227, 228, 283
watch itemactivations 26, 227all 228compilations 221, 227deffunctions 228
facts 186, 187, 227focus 227genericfunctions 228globals 63, 228instances 228
messagehandlers 228messages 228methods 228rules 227, 239slots 228statistics 227, 239
while 74, 178, 219wildcard 30, 31, 33wordp 144


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